Pyres: 2001 UK FMD Outbreak - Photo: Murdo Macleod.  Slides L-R: Smallpox, SARS Coronavirus , Foot and Mouth Disease, West Nile Virus.
Notice of Consent: H-II OPSEC

This is a Humanitarian Intervention Initiative Network. This computer system, including all related equipment, networks, and network devices (specifically including Internet access) may be monitored for all lawful purposes, including to facilitate protection against unauthorized access, and to verify security procedures, survivability, and operational security. During monitoring, information may be examined, recorded, copied and used for authorized purposes. All information, including personal information, placed or sent over this system may be monitored. Use of Humanitarian Intervention Initiative Network, authorized or unauthorized, constitutes consent to monitoring of this system.  Use of this system constitutes consent to monitoring for these purposes.

Contact: Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282


Pathobiologics International

1 October 2014

Ebola Outbreak 2014

One finding of this is that the 2014 SEQUENCES FALL AS A DIVERGENT LINEAGE OUTSIDE THE ZAIRE LINEAGE suggesting that this MAY BE a pre-existing endemic virus in West Africa rather than the result of spread of the EBOV lineage from the Central African countries that have had previous human outbreaks. -- Phylogenetic analysis of Guinea 2014 EBOV ebolavirus outbreak: Epidemic, 17 April 2014.

7 September 2013

6 July 2013

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC) have released the Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES), a collection of flexible, open-source software products developed for electronic disease surveillance in all settings. -- Johns Hopkins APL Releases Open-Source Electronic Disease Surveillance Software: JHAPL, 1 July 2013.

17 June 2013

9 November 2012

Optimization of global surveillance (MEDCAP, VETCAP) for CBRN, Infectious Disease Threats (genomic analysis, evolutionary tracking of high consequence pathogens).

Biodetection: Including Mutiplex Microarray:


7 November 2012

DNA Biometrics - Biological Countermeasure Programs

Biometrics has been added to Exploitation Analysis capabilities through H-II: OPSEC. [1]  This field includes DNA Biometrics [2] and Biological Countermeasure Programs [3] associated with bioinformatics, [4] typing methods, validation and standardization for high consequence pathogens. 

Humanitarian Resource Institute [5] mediated extensive background and policy discussions associated with Bioinformatics: Pathological Diagnostics, during the 2001 UK FMD and SARS crisis periods. [6]   In 2006, HRI presented the keynote on DNA Based Detection Technologies [7] at the Los Alamos Future of Biodetection Systems Conference for the intelligence community. [8] 

  1. H-II OPSEC: HRI Humanitarian Intervention Initiative. Url:
  2. DNA Biometrics: Biomolecular Measurement Division, Applied Genetics Group,  NIST. Url:
  3. Biological Countermeasure Programs: Michael P. McLoughlin: Technologies for Critical Incident Preparedness.Atlanta, Georgia, September 6, 2006. Url:
  4. Bioinformatics: Pathological Diagnostics: HRI: Pathobiologics International. Url:
  5. Pathobiologics International - The Consulting Arm of Humanitarian Resource Institute and the Humanitarian University Consortium: HRI: Pathobiologics International, 4 June 2004. Url:
  6. Biodefense Threat Analysis & Communications Center: Pathobiologics International.  Url:
  7. DNA-based Detection Technologies (Powerpoint): Stephen M.Apatow, Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Law. Url:
  8. Future of Biodetection Systems: Los Alamos National Laboratories, September, 2006. Url:


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