Pyres: 2001 UK FMD Outbreak - Photo: Murdo Macleod.  Slides L-R: Smallpox, SARS Coronavirus , Foot and Mouth Disease, West Nile Virus.

In deepest appreciation for the following resource provided by Boyd Richard Berends,Division of Veterinary Public Health (VPH), Utrecht University, participant contributor to the Pathobiologics International: International Veterinary Public Health Consortium (IVPHC):

Countermeasures for animal products:a review of effectiveness and potential usefulness after an accident (PDF)
Brenda J. Howarda,*, Nicholas A. Beresforda, Gabriele Voigtb
a Centre for Ecology and Hydrology}Merlewood, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria, LA11 6JU, UK
bGSF}Institut f . ur Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg, Germany
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 115–137

Boyd Richard Berends,
DVM, PhD, Dip. ECVPH, Registered Specialist VPH
Interfaculty Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS),
Division of Veterinary Public Health (VPH),
Utrecht University
tel ** (0)30-2533393;


29 March 2011

From: Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282

: Fukushima Meltdown: Iodine 131 - Cesium137 - Plutonium 239

Dear Colleagues:

It was announced yesterday that fatal levels of radioactive materials have now been isolated [1] and Japanese officials have confirmed a meltdown at the Fukushima Nuclear Reactor [2].

Discussions associated with environmental contamination include atmospheric and seawater with Iodine 131 [3] - Cesium137 [4] - Plutonium 239.[5]  Of greatest concern is Cesium137 - Plutonium 239 in seawater and exposure concentrations for pathogenicity. In the context of Plutonium 239:
Tripartite Permissible Dose Conference at Chalk River, Canada, in September 1949. At this conference, representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada agreed on tolerance doses for many radioactive isotopes, including a maximum body burden of 0.1 microgram for plutonium.

On January 24, 1950, Shields Warren, Austin Brues of Argonne National Laboratory, Robley Evans, Karl Morgan, and Wright Langham met in Washington. Langham wrote later: "As a result of this meeting, Dr. Shields Warren of the Division of Biology and Medicine authorized 0.5 ug (0.033 uc) of Pu239 as the AEC's official operating maximum permissible body burden." [6]

Environmental contamination with Plutonium 239, global ocean circulation and dilution are critical factors for health risks and I would like to see a toxicological impact analysis based on the potential exposure that exceeds the .1 - .5 ug maximum body burden.

Looking forward to feedback.


1. Fatal Radiation Detected Outside Damaged Japanese Reactor - Bloomberg, 28 march 2011. Url:
2. Japanese Officials Confirm Meltdown at Fukushima Nuclear Reactor -- Url:
3. Radioisotope Brief: Iodine-131 (I-131): CDC:
4. Radioisotope Brief: Cesium-137 (Cs-137): CDC:
5. Radioisotope Brief: Plutonium-239 (Pu-239): CDC:
6. ACHRE Report: Chapter 5: Url:

Related: Pathobiologics International
  • OIE/FAO/WHO: Japan High Radiation Levels in Seawater - Global Ocean Circulation: Pathobiologics International, 24 March 2011. Url:
Related: Humanitarian Resource Institute
  • HRI:UNArts Brief: Fukushima: Radiological Emergency - Music for Japan - MPAA: Humanitarian Resource Institute, 28 March 2011. Url:
  • HRI:UNArts Brief: Japan: Cesium - Libya: 1970 ICC - Inflation Crisis - Leadership: Humanitarian Resource Institute, 25 March 2011. Url:

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