Pyres: 2001 UK FMD Outbreak - Photo: Murdo Macleod.  Slides L-R: Smallpox, SARS Coronavirus , Foot and Mouth Disease, West Nile Virus.

7 April 2011

The country's nuclear safety agency said a small level of radioactive iodine and caesium particles were reported in the rain falling on the island of Jeju off the country's south coast but it was not enough to cause public health concern.... The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) said it expected to find radioactive materials since iodine and cesium particles have been floating in the air for the past three weeks. "Rain will pick up such particles as they fall from the sky," Yonhap quoted the institute as saying. --  Some South Korean schools close over radioactive rain concerns: Reuters Alertnet, 7 April 2011

Such evidence is a reference point for atmospheric contamination impacting the entire geographical region.  Of greatest concern are reports of confirmed atmospheric spread of Cesium.

Every United Nations member country has the responsibility to report accurate information regarding the spread of toxic, infectious or otherwise hazardous materials that constitute a public health emergency of  international concern.  See: World Health Organization: Revised International Health Regulations. PDF

International public health discussions transition to Bioaccumulation. See: Radionucleotides: Ecological Risk Analysis: Guidance, Tools and Applications: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Please note the following background discussion "International Biosecurity: Protecting Agricultural and Public Health Infrastructures."


6 April 2011

From: Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282

International Biosecurity: Protecting Agricultural and Public Health Infrastructures

On 2011 March 11 05:46:23 UTC there occurred a magnitude 9.0 earthquake near the east coast of Honshu, Japan. [1] The earthquake was followed by a tsunami that devastated the northern pacific coastal region [2] and eleven of Japan's nuclear reactors automatically shut down. [3]  On March 12, 2011, [4] failure of the cooling system at Tepco's Fukushima No 1 power plant, prompted emergency protocols, as evidence of core damage was suspected due to environmental detection of Cesium. [5]  On 15 March 2011, following the evacuation of teams from the Fukushima plant in Japan points, the international emergency management community was called to begin discussions associated with containment and control of this radiological emergency, that presented a threat to all countries in the region and the United States through the Humanitarian Resource Institute International Disaster Information Network. [6]

For close to two weeks, teams in Japan continued to work toward containment without an organized international team to assist emergency operations.  During this period, we observed uncontrolled global environmental contamination with Iodine 131 [7] with the United Nations' International Atomic Energy Association reporting radiation levels 1,600 times above normal in seawater, 12 miles from the Fukushima plant on 22 March 2011. [8]  On 5 April 2011, seawater samples taken near the facility validated contamination with radioactive iodine at 7.5 million times the legal limit and radioactive cesium at 1.1 million times the legal limit. [9]

The potential for devastation of the environmental, agricultural  and public health infrastructure in the United States, by natural or man made disasters, requires  contingency planning measures that support surveillance, containment and control, through collaboration with all members of the international community. For your reference I have re-published the paper "Agricultural Security and Emergency Preparedness: Protecting One of America's Critical Infrastructures" [10] through Pathobiologics International and the Humanitarian University Consortium.


1. USGS: Magnitude 9.0 - NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN: 2011 March 11 05:46:23 UTC.  Url:
2. Map: Impact of Japan tsunami and earthquake: CNN. Url:
3. Japan's nuclear reactors shut down after earthquake: Wired, 11 March 2011. Url:
4. Japan battles to stave off possible nuclear meltdown: Guardian UK, 12 March 2011. Url:
5. Radioisotope Brief: Cesium-137 (Cs-137): CDC:
6. International Disaster Information Network: Humanitarian Resource Institute. Url:
7. Radioisotope Brief: Iodine-131 (I-131): CDC:
8. Japan says high seawater radiation levels are no cause for alarm, CSM, 22 March 2011. Url:
9. Japan's ocean radiation hits 7.5 million times legal limit: LA Times: 5 April 2011. Url:,0,2697428.story
10. Agricultural Security and Emergency Preparedness: Protecting One of America's Critical Infrastructures. Stephen M. Apatow, Biodefense Threat Analysis Discussion Paper ASEP-2011-4, Pathobiologics International, April 2011. Url:

[Biodefense Threat Analysis Center]
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